Detection and typification of bacterial pathogens, such as Salmonella, as a part of zoonosis control programs.
One of the main goals of bacteriological examination is the detection and isolation of bacterial pathogens (e.g. Salmonella or E. coli). Additional procedures can be applied for the typing of isolates and measuring of resistance profiles for a potential antimicrobial treatment. Further molecular biology or serological research enables a detailed description of strains and thus epidemiological conclusions.
Detection of antibodies allows the monitoring of infections as well as the verification of the vaccination programs applied.
Serological examination means the detection of antibodies. Antibodies can be found in an animal after infection or as a result of proper vaccination. Depending on the agent and the question of concern various different serological tests are used. Tests such as the RPA (Rapid Plate Agglutination) and the AGP (Agar-gel Precipitation), allow professionals to detect the antibodies against specific types of pathogens. ELISAs (Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay) are offered commercially from different suppliers and are easy to automate. These tests are suitable especially for serial examinations. To further distinguish antibodies from various serotypes or subtypes of pathogens, such as infectious bronchitis or avian influenza, the laboratory provides tests like the HI (Haemagglutination Inhibition test) and VN (Virus Neutralization Test). Immunofluorescence technique shows a high specificity and is mainly used in research projects.
Virus can be isolated in embryonated chicken eggs or in tissue culture systems.
While molecular techniques like PCR
detect nucleic acid fragments one works in the classical culture technique with
the livability of the virus. Furthermore you might grow non-target-oriented any
virus that is present in the material. Laboratory Diagnostics offer a variety of
primary and secondary cell culture systems as well as cultures in embryonated
chicken eggs to isolate viruses.
Live virus is essential for the production of autogenous vaccines to prevent clinical signs of infections with e.g. Adenoviruses. In some circumstances it is also necessary to show viral characteristics in tests with live infectious viral material (e.g. pathogenicity tests).
Molecular techniques, such as PCR and sequencing, provides the most current information on the health of a flock.
Molecular biology techniques such as the PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) are widely used for human and veterinary diagnostics. The Real Time PCR, for instance, allows to certify the presence of Influenza Virus or Sars Cov-2 in within only few hours. In fact, this is nowadays a vital part of disease control. Compared to the detection of antibodies, which could only lead to retrospective information, the PCR provides the most current information on the current health status. Furthermore, PCR techniques and their sequencing processes allow a fast characterization of different bacterial and viral pathogens.